Scotland experiences high levels of ‘excess’ mortality over and above that explained by the country’s socioeconomic profile. This excess level of mortality is particularly pronounced in and around Glasgow. Although poor health in Glasgow is principally explained by its high levels of poverty and deprivation, mortality in the city is also much higher than in other UK comparable cities such as Liverpool and Manchester. This report from Glasgow Centre for Population Health and colleagues summarises all the research that has been undertaken into this phenomenon, and from a detailed examination of all the available evidence, identifies the most likely underlying causes and, therefore, the most appropriate policy responses. As the report makes clear, however, such responses need to be entwined with ever more urgent actions to address the key drivers of overall poor health in the country – poverty and deprivation – and to seek to narrow the widening gaps in income, power, wealth and, therefore, health in Scottish society.